Raman vibrational spectroscopy is a major field of focus. Since vibrational frequency is influenced by the boundary conditions, Raman provides insightful adsorption, phase, transformation etc. information. ND SERS Sensors provide the analytical capacity on a non-traditional substrate to meet demanding applications.
Specific techniques are also developed to image the special 3D nanostructuring. Such techniques include AFM, SEM, TEM, SNOM etc. These and some other interesting techniques to visualize a 3D structure are briefly summarized in this section.