||Quantum Theory

Atoms, electrons or the photons that make up light, are full of surprises. For instance, they can exist in more than one place at once or exist in a shared state, no matter what their physical separation. Classical theory still tends to prevail, in recent postulations that no information gain implies no disturbance or that disturbance leads to some form of information gain.

||Electromagnetic (EM) Simulations

The Raman Enhancement Factor (EF) is typically determined with EM simulations by using generalized Mie theory (GMT) and Finite Difference Time Domain techniques such as 2D-FDTD and 3D-FDTD. However, these techniques are computationally limited to simple geometric systems such two-nanoparticle clusters of perfect spheres.

||Light-emitting diode (LED)

LEDs naturally give off a bright blue light when electrons move through a semiconductor material. However, rare-earth-element phosphors help to better resemble sunlight. As an alternative, Si NPs under 5 nm may be added to the LED bulbs to soften the emitted light.


Nanostructers may not be seen under the microscope since being smaller than the diffraction limit of light. Confocal microscopy is still a popular means of witnessing the effects of illuminating a sample with embedded nanostructures (e.g. cells, chemical dyes, plasmonic structures etc.). Stimulated emission depletion (STED) technology improves on confocal capabilities that achieves sub 30nm resolution. This is accomplished by deactivating fluorophores to enhance the imaging.

||Polariton Laser

Recently developed based on conventional semiconductor lasers. Excitons are formed when the electrons and electron holes are attracted to each other in a quantum well due to applied electric voltage. Polaritons result from strong light-matter coupling of these excitons in semiconductor micro-cavities. When excitons decay, photons are created. Cooled temperatures are required.

||Random Laser

A random laser works on an optical pump principal as opposed to  having mirrors as in conventional systems. Ordinary incoherent light is converted into ordered, coherent laser light, which is radially emitted into all directions. A predetermined emission pattern is achieved by optimizing the optical pump pattern.

||Regular Laser

Tweezer and levitation effects are possible with the forces produced by a self-focused laser beam.

||Wide-Field Temporal Focusing (WF-TeFo)

A two-photon pulse laser used for fast volumetric (3-D) imaging. Thin lateral “discs” of excitation light are created while retaining exceptional axial resolution. These 1-D “discs” are combined into 3-D images of sculpted light.