||Bone growth

Osteoblast and hydroxyapatite studies on nanofibrous surfaces are another specialty of Open ND (TM). In other efforts, bioactive silicate nanoplatelets induce osteogenic stem cell differentiation to promote bone growth.

||Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

A high temperature furnace may be used to stitch many small crystalline grains. In such cases, in its perfect crystalline form, a one-atom-thick carbon layer (graphene) is the strongest material ever measured:

It would take an elephant, balanced on a pencil, to break through a sheet of graphene the thickness of Saran Wrap”

James Hone, Columbia Engineering professor

Graphene also has excellent electrical conductivity up to 34 one-atom-thick layers, after which it resembles bulk properties.

A breakthrough in carbon nanotube (CNT) length with CVD was also achieved. The previous 20 cm record length was shattered at about 55 cm.


A method using a voltage potential (most recently up to 120,000V) to draw very fine fibers from a liquid precursor. The nanowires may be solid or hollow depending on the apparatus. A variety of polymers may also be co-electrospun with varying concentrations and structures of other functional compounds. In addition, the nanowires may be heat-treated in the case of inorganic dopants. For example, co-electrospinning with TiO2 and following with heat/solution treatment may reduce the polymer composition leaving a somewhat coarse and impure TiO2 nanowire.


Using CNTs as backbones, the long polymer chains can slide along the surface with a high degree of organization. The result is a polymer composite with a strength close that of zylon: ca. 5000 MPa tensile strength and 110 GPa modulus of elasticity.


Similar to a molding process, a mixture of polymers are applied to a large roll of film that consists of a nano-sized mold containing features of the desired shape and size. After solidification, particles are removed from the mold using a roll of adhesive film, which can then be sprayed with layers of specialized coatings.