Osteoblast and hydroxyapatite studies on nanofibrous surfaces are another specialty of Open ND (TM). In other efforts, bioactive silicate nanoplatelets induce osteogenic stem cell differentiation to promote bone growth.
||Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
A high temperature furnace may be used to stitch many small crystalline grains. In such cases, in its perfect crystalline form, a one-atom-thick carbon layer (graphene) is the strongest material ever measured:
It would take an elephant, balanced on a pencil, to break through a sheet of graphene the thickness of Saran Wrap”
James Hone, Columbia Engineering professor
Graphene also has excellent electrical conductivity up to 34 one-atom-thick layers, after which it resembles bulk properties.
A breakthrough in carbon nanotube (CNT) length with CVD was also achieved. The previous 20 cm record length was shattered at about 55 cm.
A method using a voltage potential (most recently up to 120,000V) to draw very fine fibers from a liquid precursor. The nanowires may be solid or hollow depending on the apparatus. A variety of polymers may also be co-electrospun with varying concentrations and structures of other functional compounds. In addition, the nanowires may be heat-treated in the case of inorganic dopants. For example, co-electrospinning with TiO2 and following with heat/solution treatment may reduce the polymer composition leaving a somewhat coarse and impure TiO2 nanowire.
Using CNTs as backbones, the long polymer chains can slide along the surface with a high degree of organization. The result is a polymer composite with a strength close that of zylon: ca. 5000 MPa tensile strength and 110 GPa modulus of elasticity.
Similar to a molding process, a mixture of polymers are applied to a large roll of film that consists of a nano-sized mold containing features of the desired shape and size. After solidification, particles are removed from the mold using a roll of adhesive film, which can then be sprayed with layers of specialized coatings.