A mixture of duplex and quadruplex DNA subunits resulted in fibers from 250 – 2000 nm in length. These strands appeared to be stiffer than those made solely from duplex subunits, which should lead to improved DNA patterning for the creation of new multi-functional nanomaterials.

||Self Assembly – Light Induced

As with inorganics, it is found that two peptides (small proteins) may change shape upon irradiation with light, thereby allowing or preventing a specific protein-protein interaction. This light activation concept was also developed with micro-scale stimuli-responsive hydrogels to release therapeutic agents in a patient’s body. Magnetic navigation of such micro assemblies with MRI equipment is also deemed possible.


Strands of DNA can pivot at a certain point with a specific DNA sequence acting as an actuator to close and open the 16 nm gap. This tweezer effect can bring, for example, an enzyme on one end and a cofactor on the other end together and in essence catalyze their reaction.

||Vault particles

Vaults are barrel-shaped nanoparticles found in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. It may be assembled by revolving about 78 major vault proteins. The 100nm particle has a large interior space and is appeared to be biodegradable.